Ano-Rectal Disease

Overview

Anal fistula, or fistula-in-ano, is an abnormal connection or channel like structure, between the surface of the anal canal and the exterior perianal skin.Anal fistulae originate from the anal glands, which are located between the two layers of the anal sphincters and which drain into the anal canal. If the outlet of these glands becomes blocked, an abscess can form which can eventually point to the skin surface.

Anorectal disease refers to illnesses of the anus and/or rectum. The most common ailments include hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anorectal abscesses, and anal fistulas.

1) Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are large blood vessels similar to varicose veins located around the anus and lower rectum. Some common causes of hemorrhoids include aging, chronic constipation, and pregnancy. Symptoms include itching, inflammation, and pain.

Best Hemorrhoids Treatment in Kolkata What causes Hemorrhoids?

Experts aren't sure what causes hemorrhoids to develop. Possible factors include:
. straining during a bowel movement
. complications from chronic constipation
. sitting for a long period of time, especially on the toilet
. a family history of hemorrhoids


What are the symptoms of hemorrhoids?

Symptoms of hemorrhoids include:
. extreme itching around the anus . irritation and pain around the anus . itchy or painful lump or swelling near your anus . fecal leakage . painful bowel movements . blood on your tissue after having a bowel movement Although hemorrhoids are painful, they aren't life-threatening and often go away on their own without treatment. If you have them often, you may develop symptoms of anemia, such as weakness and pale skin due to blood loss, though this is rare.

2) Anal Fissures

Anal fissures are small tears in the lining of the anus. Some causes of anal fissures include hard, dry bowel movements, diarrhea, and inflammation in the anorectal area. Symptoms include pain, bleeding, and itching.

What causes Anal fissure?

Best Anal Fissure Treatment in Kolkata An anal fissure most often occurs when passing large or hard stools. Chronic constipation or frequent diarrhea can also tear the skin around your anus. Other common causes include:

. Crohn's disease or another IBD
. Straining during childbirth
. Decreased blood flow to the anorectal area
. Overly tight or spastic anal sphincter muscles

In rare cases, an anal fissure may develop due to:

. Anal cancer
. HIV
. Tuberculosis
. Syphilis
. Herpes


What are the symptoms of an Anal Fissure?

An anal fissure may cause one or more of the following symptoms:

. a visible tear in the skin around your anus
. a skin tag, or small lump of skin, next to the tear
. sharp pain in the anal area during bowel movements
. streaks of blood on stools or on tissue paper after wiping
. burning or itching in the anal area

3) Anorectal Abscess

An anorectal abscess is a pus-filled infection around the area of the anus or rectum. Anal abscesses occur when bacteria or fecal matter enters the tissue outside the anus through infected anal glands. Symptoms include pain, anal skin irritation, pus drainage, fever, and swelling. Having an inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease or colitis, increases the chance of getting an anorectal abscess.

What causes Anorectal Abscess?

A blocked anal gland, a sexually transmitted infection (STI), or an infected anal fissure can cause anal abscesses. Some other risk factors for anal abscesses include: . Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, which are inflammatory bowel diseases that cause the body to attack healthy tissue diabetes
. a compromised immune system due to illnesses like HIV or AIDS
. anal sex, which can increase the risk of anal abscesses in both men and women
. use of the medication prednisone or other steroids
. current or recent chemotherapy
. constipation
. diarrhea


Best Anorectal Abscess Treatment in Kolkata

What are the symptoms of an Anorectal Abscess?

A throbbing and constant pain in the anal area is probably one of the most common and immediately noticeable symptoms of anal abscess. The pain is usually accompanied by swelling in the anal area and greater pain during bowel movements.

Other common signs of an anal abscess include:
. constipation
. rectal discharge or bleeding
. swelling or tenderness of the skin surrounding the anus
. fatigue

4) Anal Fistula

The anus is the external opening through which feces are expelled from the body. Just inside the anus are a number of small glands. If one of these glands become blocked, an abscess-an infected cavity-may form. An anal abscess is usually treated by surgical drainage, although some drain spontaneously. About 50% of these abscesses may develop into a fistula, in which a small tunnel connects the infected gland inside the anus to an opening on the skin around the anus.

Best Anal Fistula Treatment in Kolkata What causes an Anal Fistula?
Most fistulas result from an anal abscess. A small number of fistulas may less frequently be caused by other processes such as Crohn's disease, sexually transmitted diseases, trauma, tuberculosis, cancer, or diverticulitis.

What are the Symptoms of an Anal Fistula?

The following may be symptoms or signs of an anal fistula:
. Recurrent anal abscesses
. Pain and swelling around the anus
. Pain with bowel movements
. Bleeding
. Bloody or foul-smelling drainage (pus) from an opening around the anus. The pain may decrease after the fistula drains.
. Irritation of the skin around the anus due to persistent drainage
. Fever, chills, and a general feeling of fatigue. (However, these may be symptoms of many conditions.)